Printed soft skin electrodes for seamless bio-impedance measurements

Bara Levit, Peter Krebsbach, Chen Bar-Haim, Gerardo Hernandez-Sosa, Yael Hanein*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bio-impedance measurements are widely used to assess various physiological parameters. Contemporary skin electrodes for bio-impedance measurements are cumbersome and novel electrode designs are needed to allow fast and easy placement, long-term stability and user comfort. This investigation introduces dry, printed, bio-compatible electrode arrays, made of screen-printed carbon and inkjet-printed PEDOT:PSS that measure bio-impedance non-invasively and stably. Two contact impedance measurements yield the lowest normalized values of soft electrodes reported to date. Four contact bio-impedance measurements from the radial, ulnar, common carotid and superficial temporal arteries were performed, demonstrating the ability to capture blood pulsation in different areas with small form factor. Owing to the unique properties of the printed electrodes reported here, we were able to demonstrate for the first time blood pulsation in the face, continuous blood pulsation measurement during simultaneous muscle activation and signal stability over many hours.

Original languageEnglish
Article number015020
JournalFlexible and Printed Electronics
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2023


  • bio-impedance
  • impedance plethysmography
  • inkjet-printing
  • printed electrodes
  • screen-printing
  • skin electrodes


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