Prevalence and Patterns of Permanent Tooth Agenesis among Orthodontic Patients—Treatment Options and Outcome

Shirley Schonberger, Yehoshua Shapira*, Aikaterini Maria Pavlidi, Tamar Finkelstein

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


(1) Background: tooth agenesis is a very common dental anomaly of the human dentition most often affecting the maxillary anterior region, mandibular and maxillary premolar regions. (2) Purpose: the present study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence and patterns between bilateral and unilateral tooth agenesis among orthodontic individuals and to illustrate the treatment options for missing teeth and the outcome. (3) Materials and methods: Pre-treatment records, photographs and radiographs, of 3000 consecutively treated orthodontic individuals from the post-graduate clinic of Tel Aviv University were surveyed to detect permanent tooth agenesis in either dental arch. The data was recorded according to gender, and location and quantified between unilateral and bilateral agenesis. Descriptive and comparative statistical analysis were performed with t-test and Chi-square test (p < 0.05). (4) Results: permanent teeth agenesis, excluding third molars, was found in 326 individuals (11%), 139 males (43%) and 187 females (57%). Of them, 59% were missing in the maxilla and (41%) were missing in the mandible. A higher prevalence rate of bilateral missing lateral incisors in the maxilla (62 cases), followed by bilateral missing second premolars in the mandible (44 cases) compared with unilateral missing teeth. (5) Conclusions: this study found an overall prevalence of missing permanent teeth in orthodontic patients to be 11%. The female: male prevalence ratio was roughly 3:2, with a greater tendency in the maxilla than in the mandible. A higher prevalence of bilateral missing maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular second premolar than unilateral missing teeth.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12252
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • bilateral tooth agenesis
  • dentistry
  • distribution
  • hypodontia
  • orthodontics


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