Objectives: Surgical management of airway compression of vascular origin requires an accurate analysis of anatomy and various mechanisms of compression. This study assessed the usefulness of 3-dimensional computed tomographic scanning in the preoperative and postoperative evaluation of airways compression in a pediatric population. Methods: Thirty-seven consecutive patients (median age, 4 months) were examined with multislice 3-dimensional computed tomographic scanning: 18 patients before surgical treatment of anomalies of vascular rings, 2 patients because of respiratory symptoms after repair of esophageal atresia, and 17 patients because of persisting respiratory symptoms or prolonged mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. Results: The procedure was successful, with high-quality diagnostic imaging obtained in all cases without any complications. The anatomy and relationship between the vascular arches and airways was analyzed in all referred patients with vascular arch anomalies confirmed on the basis of the surgical findings, and this helped the surgeon to plan the procedure and choose the best approach. After cardiac surgery, the airway and vascular structures involved and the mechanism of compression were specified in all but one case, and the 3-dimensional computed tomographic scan serves as an important tool for deciding whether to perform reoperation on patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: Three-dimensional computed tomographic scanning is a safe, fast, and noninvasive method useful for accurately analyzing the mechanisms of airway compression of vascular origin and thus possible improving the surgical management of pediatric patients.