Objective: This manuscript discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, pathophysiology and possible etiologies of prenatal thrombosis of the inferior vena cava and renal veins. Methods: Eleven cases were identified through a Medline search of the English literature. These cases were reviewed, together with a recent case that was treated in our medical center. Results: Fetal thrombosis in the aforementioned vessels, presented as hydrops fetalis (33%), acute fetal distress (42%), or as an incidental prenatal ultrasound finding (25%). Underlying maternal conditions were present in 58%, and included chronic conditions (hypertension and diabetes mellitus), acute conditions (pyelonephritis and preeclampsia) and thrombophilia. In 42% cases, the prenatal ultrasound scan revealed an enlarged and hyper-echogenic affected kidney. Conclusion: Intrauterine fetal venous thrombosis is a rare phenomenon, probably attributed to a multifactorial process. These factors may include inherited thrombophilia as well as prothrombotic clinical conditions.
- Inferior vena cava
- Renal veins