Prenatal brain imaging in congenital toxoplasmosis

G. Malinger*, H. Werner, J. C. Rodriguez Leonel, M. Rebolledo, M. Duque, S. Mizyrycki, T. Lerman-Sagie, M. Herrera

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To describe brain imaging findings and outcomes in fetuses with confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis (CTX). Methods: Physicians from Prenatal Diagnosis Units in ten Latin American countries were contacted and asked to provide data on fetuses with ultrasound findings suggestive of intrauterine infection and a positive diagnosis of CTX. The imaging studies were reviewed, and findings were described and tabulated. Results: Intracranial findings suggestive of CTX were identified in eight patients at a median gestational age of 31.5 weeks (range, 24.4-34 weeks). Ventriculomegaly was found in seven patients [severe (3), mild (4)]. Multiple echogenic nodular foci consistent with calcifications were found in seven patients [brain parenchyma (7), periventricular zone (3) and caudothalamic zone (3)]. Diffuse periventricular echogenicity or cysts were seen in three and callosal dysgenesis in one. All six survivors have choroidoretinitis and intracranial calcifications, four suffer from developmental delay and three of these four children also suffer from seizures and blindness. Postnatal hydrocephaly was found in five children. Conclusions: Ventriculomegaly associated with multiple echo-dense nodules is characteristic of severe fetal toxoplasmosis and carries a poor prognosis. When the ventricles have normal size or are only mildly dilated, the nodules restricted to the parenchyma development may be normal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)881-886
Number of pages6
JournalPrenatal Diagnosis
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2011


  • Fetal brain
  • Fetal infections
  • MRI
  • Prenatal diagnosis
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Ultrasound


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