Background: Variants in the delta opioid receptor gene, OPRD1, were associated with opioid use disorder and response to treatment. The study goal was to assess whether OPRD1 variants predict survival and retention in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Methods: Retention and survival time since admission (June 1993 - June 2022) until leaving treatment (for retention), or at the end of follow-up (Dec 2022) (for retention and survival) were analyzed in 488 patients. Vital data was taken from a national registry. Predictors were estimated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. Results: Longer retention and survival were found for carriers of the T allele of SNP rs204076. This SNP is associated with OPRD1 expression in cortex (GTEx). Carriers of the T allele (n = 251) survived longer compared to non-carriers (24.7 vs. 20.2 years, p = 0.005) and had longer retention (11.2 vs. 8.8 years, p = 0.04). Multivariate analysis identified the T allele as an independent predictor of longer survival time (p = 0.003) and retention (p = 0.009). Additional predictors for survival were no benzodiazepine use after one year in MMT, no hepatitis C, <20 years of opioid usage, and admission at age < 30. Additional predictors for longer retention were no use of other drugs except opioids on admission, and no drugs at one year, as well as methadone dose ≥ 100 mg/d at one year and axis I & II DSM-5 psychiatric diagnosis. Conclusions: The OPRD1 SNP rs204076 and non-genetic predictors contribute to survival time and retention in MMT patients.
- Delta opioid receptor gene
- Methadone maintenance treatment