Predictors of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus positivity and adverse outcomes among hospitalized patients with a compatible syndrome

Amir Shlomai*, Amir Nutman, Taly Kotlovsky, Vered Schechner, Yehuda Carmeli, Hanan Guzner-Gur

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: A pandemic (H1N1) influenza A virus was identified in 2009. Objectives: To investigate predictors for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among hospitalized patients with a flulike illness and to identify parameters suggesting a severe clinical course. Methods: We analyzed a cohort of all patients hospitalized during a 2 month period with a flu-like syndrome who were tested for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection. Demographic, clinical and laboratory, along with outcome parameters, were recorded and compared between pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus-positive and negative hospitalized patients. Results: Of the 179 examined hospitalized patients suspected of having pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection 65 (36%) were found positive. These patients tended to be younger and had significantly fewer comorbidities. In addition, they had a significantly higher frequency of fever (94%), cough (86%) and myalgia (29%). Furthermore, age < 65 years and cough were independent predictors for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus positivity in a multivariate regression analysis. Notably, 14 of the 65 positive patients (21.5%) had acute respiratory insufficiency requiring treatment in the intensive care unit. These patients were neither older nor previously sicker than patients with non-severe disease, but were distinguished by augmented inflammatory markers, significant lymphopenia associated with disease severity, and overall mortality of 21.4%. Conclusions: Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus-positive hospitalized patients tend to be younger and have fewer comorbidities as compared to compatible negative patients. A significant number of relatively young and previously healthy positive patients might develop severe disease associated with a robust inflammatory reaction and significant lymphopenia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)622-627
Number of pages6
JournalIsrael Medical Association Journal
Volume12
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2010

Keywords

  • Intensive care unit
  • Mortality
  • Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus
  • Prognosis

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