Objective: Cardiopulmonary bypass in coronary artery bypass graft operations may adversely affect the outcome especially in high-risk patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate results of coronary artery bypass performed without cardiopulmonary bypass, in a relatively high-risk cohort, and to identify predictors of unfavorable outcome. Method: Three hundred and thirteen (313) patients, 246 (79%) of whom had high-risk conditions, who have a coronary anatomy suitable for coronary artery bypass surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass, underwent this procedure between December 1991 and July 1995. Mean number of grafts/patient was 1.8 (1-5), and only 71 patients (23%) received a graft to the circumflex coronary system. Results: Early unfavorable outcome events included operative mortality (12 patients, 3.8%), nonfatal perioperative myocardial infarction (eight patients, 2.6%), emergency reoperation (three patients, 0.9%), sternal infection (five patients, 1.6%), and nonfatal stroke (two patients, 0.6%). Multivariate analysis revealed angina pectoris class IV (odds ratio 5.4) and age ≤ 70 years (odds ratio 5.0) as independent predictors of early mortality. Preoperative risk factors such as repeat coronary artery bypass grafting (50 patients, 16%), ejection fraction ≤0.35 (85 patients, 27%), acute myocardial infarction (86 patients, 28%), cardiogenic shock (ten patients, 3.2%), chronic renal failure (25 patients, 8%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20 patients, 6%), and peripheral vascular disease (51 patients, 16%) did not increase early mortality. During 33 months of follow-up (range 1-57 months), there were 42 deaths, at least 16 cardiac-related (one and four years actuarial survival of 90% and 76% respectively), and 39 patients (12.5%) in whom angina returned. Calcified aorta (odds ratio 2.6) and old myocardial infarction (odds ratio 1.8) were independent predictors of overall unfavorable events. Conclusions: Coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass can be performed with relatively low operative mortality in certain high-risk subgroups of patients; however, an increased risk of graft occlusion is a potential disadvantage. This procedure should therefore be considered only for patients with suitable coronary anatomy, in whom cardiopulmonary bypass poses a high risk. Although the risk of stroke is relatively low, the procedure is still hazardous for patients aged 70 years and over.
- Cardiopulmonary bypass
- Coronary artery bypass