Background: In infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), prediction of the prognosis is based on clinical, neuro-imaging and neurophysiological parameters. Methods: EEG, cranial ultrasound, MRI and follow-up findings of 23 infants (GA 35-42 weeks) with HIE were studied retrospectively to assess 1) the contribution of ultrasound, MRI and EEG in predicting outcome, 2) the accuracy of ultrasound as compared to MRI, and 3) whether patterns of brain damage and EEG findings are associated. Results: An abnormal EEG background pattern was highly predictive of adverse outcome [positive predictive value (PPV) 0.88]. If combined with diffuse white and deep and/or cortical grey matter changes on ultrasound or MRI, the PPV increased to 1.00. Abnormal neuro-imaging findings were also highly predictive of adverse outcome. Abnormal signal intensity in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and diffuse cortical grey matter damage were associated with adverse outcome. MRI showed deep grey matter changes more frequently than ultrasound. Severely abnormal neuro-imaging findings were always associated with abnormal EEG background pattern. Conclusions: Both early EEG and neuro-imaging findings are predictive of outcome in infants with HIE. The predictive value of EEG is strengthened by neuro-imaging.
- Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy
- Term infant