Predicting In-Hospital Mortality at Admission to the Medical Ward: A Big-Data Machine Learning Model

Shelly Soffer*, Eyal Klang, Yiftach Barash, Ehud Grossman, Eyal Zimlichman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: General medical wards admit high-risk patients. Artificial intelligence algorithms can use big data for developing models to assess patients’ risk stratification. The aim of this study was to develop a mortality prediction machine learning model using data available at the time of admission to the medical ward. Methods: We included consecutive patients (ages 18-100) admitted to medical wards at a single medical center (January 1, 2013-December 31, 2018). We constructed a machine learning model using patient characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory tests, and patients’ emergency department (ED) management. The model was trained on data from the years 2013 to 2017 and validated on data from the year 2018. The area under the curve (AUC) for mortality prediction was used as an outcome metric. Youden index was used to find an optimal sensitivity-specificity cutoff point. Results: Of the 118,262 patients admitted to the medical ward, 6311 died (5.3%). The single variables with the highest AUCs were medications administered in the ED (AUC = 0.74), ED diagnosis (AUC = 0.74), and albumin (AUC = 0.73). The machine learning model yielded an AUC of 0.924 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.917-0.930). For Youden index, a sensitivity of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.86-0.89) and specificity of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.83–0.83) were observed. This corresponds to a false-positive rate of 1:5.9 and negative predictive value of 0.99. Conclusion: A machine learning model outperforms single variables predictions of in-hospital mortality at the time of admission to the medical ward. Such a decision support tool has the potential to augment clinical decision-making regarding level of care needed for admitted patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)227-234.e4
JournalAmerican Journal of Medicine
Volume134
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2021

Keywords

  • Artificial intelligence
  • Big data
  • In-Hospital mortality

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