Baruch Givoni, Hadas Saaroni

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Parks are known to create a ‘park cool island’ (PCI) effect in cities in temperate latitudes as well as in tropical climates and thus, to improve the climatic comfort conditions. The park areas are more humid and therefore cooler due to evapotranspiration processes from the vegetation that increase the proportion of latent heat in comparison with the sensible heat according to the Bowen Ratio of energy balance.
Irrigated lawn areas are major parts in parks and therefore, it is most interesting to study and predict its temperature and the climatic conditions in this area. Sun exposed vegetation is subjected to two processes: cooling due to evapotranspiration and warming due to sun radiation. The aim of this study is the relationship between this two processes and their effect on the lawn temperature.
Measurements of solar radiation, air temperature, lawn temperature, relative humidity and wind speed in “Begin” Park, Tel Aviv, Israel were taken during five case studies with heat stress conditions, four of them were hot and humid (sultry conditions), as most summer days, and one of them hot and dry, a “Sharav” day that characterizes the spring. The total area of the park is ~100 hectares, 40% of which has already been developed and the park consists mainly of open irrigated lawn.
A formula calculating the lawn temperature was developed based on the solar radiation, air temperature and wind speed. Very good correlation was found between the computed results and the actual lawn measured temperatures for the five case studies.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFifth International Conference on Urban Climate
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings, Fifth International Conference on Urban Climate: 1-5 September, 2003, Łódź, Poland, International Association for Urban Climate
EditorsKazimierz Kłysik
Place of PublicationLodz, Poland
PublisherLodz University
Number of pages4
ISBN (Print)9788391672822, 8391672824
StatePublished - 2003
EventFifth International Conference on Urban Climate - University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
Duration: 1 Sep 20035 Sep 2003
Conference number: 5


ConferenceFifth International Conference on Urban Climate
Abbreviated titleICUC-5
Internet address


  • Surface temperature
  • Evapotranspiration
  • solar radiation


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