One year after the 1982 Lebanon war, the authors assessed the prevalence, type, and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder in a large representative sample of Israeli soldiers who had been treated for combat stress reactions. Comparison were made with a group of soldiers who had fought in the same battles but had not been treated for this reaction. A dramatically higher percentage of soldiers with combat stress reaction (59%) than of soldiers without combat stress reaction (16%) developed posttraumatic stress disorders. Age was significantly associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. The authors discuss the differential quality of posttraumatic stress disorder among both groups as well as the factors facilitating recovery.