Posttraumatic Intrusion, Avoidance, and Social Functioning: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

Zahava Solomon*, Mario Mikulincer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The study assesses posttraumatic intrusion, avoidance, and social functioning among 214 Israeli combat veterans from the first Lebanon War with and without combat stress reaction (CSR) 1, 2, 3, and 20 years after the war. CSR veterans reported higher intrusion and avoidance than did non-CSR veterans. With time, there was a decline in these symptoms. In addition, intrusion and avoidance were associated with problems in social functioning on a given year, and they longitudinally predicted social dysfunction 2, 3, and 20 years after the war. CSR veterans presented stronger temporal covariations between intrusion-avoidance and social functioning. The findings suggest that CSR is a marker for future psychopathology and point to the role of avoidance in social dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)316-324
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Volume75
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2007

Keywords

  • PTSD
  • epidemiology
  • military psychiatry
  • social dysfunction
  • war

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