Postintravitreal Injection Endophthalmitis: Incidence, Characteristics, Management, and Outcome

Bar Davidov, Avi Ohayon, Omer Trivizki, Shulamit Schwartz, Shiri Shulman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose. Postintravitreal injection (IVI) endophthalmitis is a rare but devastating complication. Herein, we report the incidence,and clinical and microbiological characteristics, as well as the visual outcome, in IVIs endophthalmitis in two medical centers. Methods. All patients undergoing intravitreal injections between 1/2018 and 12/2019 in two large medical centers were analyzed for post-IVI endophthalmitis. Results. Of the total of 51,356 IVIs performed, 23 cases of post-IVI endophthalmitis were diagnosed, yielding an overall incidence of 0.045%. The median interval from IVI to symptoms onset was 2 days (IQR: 1-5). Cultures were positive in 56% of the cases (100% Gram-positive bacteria and 76% coagulase-negative staphylococcus). Parameters associated with higher culture-positive rates included samples taken during vitrectomy, WBC on vitreous smear, the number of IVIs in the 12 months prior to presentation, and the time interval from last IVI to diagnostic sampling. At 6- and 12-month follow-up, the median change in VA (logMAR) was -1.10 (IQR: (-1.32)-(-0.40)) and -1.02 (IQR: (-1.10)-(-0.30)), respectively. Younger age and better BCVA at presentation were associated with better VA outcome, while positive culture result and systemic steroids treatment were each associated with the worse visual outcome. We found no difference in visual outcomes between PPV and TAI as a primary procedure. Conclusion. Post-IVI endophthalmitis is a rare complication, and most patients do not regain their initial VA. Certain parameters (clinical, microbiological, and therapeutic) may help anticipate the outcome and guide decision making regarding diagnosis and treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9212524
JournalJournal of Ophthalmology
StatePublished - 2023


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