Background: We examined psychiatric morbidity following war-related psychic trauma, with a special focus on the depressive comorbidity of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Subjects consisted of 60 Israeli veterans who sought psychiatric treatment 4-6 years after having been exposed to war trauma. PTSD and psychiatric comorbidity were diagnosed using the Structured Interview for PTSD and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Results: Both lifetime (100%) and current (87%) PTSD were the most prevalent disorders. Comorbidity was extensive, with major depressive disorder (MDD) most prevalent (95% lifetime, 50% current), followed by anxiety disorders, minor affective disorders, and alcoholism or drug misuse Conclusions: Within posttraumatic psychiatric morbidity of combat origin, PTSD and MDD are the most prevalent disorders. In addition it appears that PTSD, although related to post-traumatic MDD beyond a mere sharing of common symptoms, is at the same time differentiated from it as an independent diagnostic category.