Post-traumatic Growth: The Roles of the Sense of Entitlement, Gratitude and hope

Dan Confino*, Michal Einav, Malka Margalit

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


People believe that they are entitled to well-being and safety, and their responses to unexpected traumatic events reveal individual differences. Their reactions vary, from feeling blocked and distressed to feeling proactive towards new growth, depending on their personal resources. The current study sought to identify the role of entitlement in explaining post-traumatic growth (PTG) while considering the role of gratitude and hope as personal resources. We used a community-based sample of Israeli adults (n = 182) who reported experiencing a traumatic event during the preceding year. The relationships between PTG and their sense of entitlement, gratitude, and hope were examined. A stepwise multiple hierarchical regression revealed that all the three variables were associated with PTG. However, the effect of hope turned insignificant with the inclusion of sense of entitlement and gratitude in the regression. Sense of entitlement and gratitude were independently associated with PTG. The theoretical contribution of these findings is discussed, as well as their interventional implications and future directions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-465
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Applied Positive Psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Gratitude
  • Hope
  • Post-traumatic growth
  • Sense of entitlement


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