Port site metastases in urological laparoscopic surgery

Alexander Tsivian*, A. Ami Sidi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose: Laparoscopic surgery is rapidly gaining widespread acceptance among urologists, including extensive application in malignant conditions. However, untoward occurrences of port site metastases have not eluded to urological applications. This up-to-date review on port site metastases in urology delineates possible contributing factors and describes techniques to prevent it. Materials and Methods: We comprehensively reviewed published experimental and clinical studies with special emphasis on the incidence, pathophysiology and prevention of port site metastases. Results: Nine cases of port site metastases after urological laparoscopy have been described in clinical and experimental studies. Etiological factors include natural malignant disease behavior, host immune status, local wound factors, laparoscopy related factors such as aerosolization of tumor cells (the use of gas, type of gas, insufflation and desufflation, and pneumoperitoneum) and sufficient technical experience of the surgeons and operating team (adequate laparoscopic equipment, skill, minimal handling of the tumor, surgical manipulation and wound contamination during instruments change, organ morcellation and specimen removal). Conclusions: Port site metastases is a multifactorial phenomenon with an as yet undetermined incidence. The problem is influenced to some extent by surgeon and operating team experience and, therefore, it could be partially prevented. The suggested preventive steps are avoiding laparoscopic surgery when there are ascites, trocar fixation to prevent dislodgment, avoiding gas leakage along and around the trocar, sufficient technical readiness of the operating team (adequate laparoscopic equipment and technique, minimal handling and avoiding tumor boundary violation of the tumor), using a bag for specimen removal, placing drainage when needed before desufflation, povidone-iodine irrigation of instruments, trocars and port site wounds, and suturing 10 mm. and larger trocar wounds.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1213-1218
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2003


  • Iatrogenic disease
  • Laparoscopy
  • Neoplasm metastasis
  • Surgical instruments
  • Urologic neoplasms


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