Nir Gomel, Michaella Goldstein, Adrian T. Fung, Claudio Iovino, Filippo Tatti, Enrico Peiretti, Zohar Habot-Wilner, Anat Loewenstein, Matias Iglicki, Dinah Zur*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose:To investigate eyes with polypoidal lesions associated with choroidal nevi, their multimodal imaging characteristics, and long clinical follow-up.Methods:Multicenter, retrospective case series study of patients with polypoidal lesions overlying choroidal nevi. Demographic and clinical information were recorded. Multimodal imaging including color fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography angiography, fundus fluorescein angiography, indocyanine angiography, and A-and B-scan ultrasonography were analyzed for nevus and polypoidal lesion characteristics.Results:Fourteen eyes (14 patients; mean age: 70.3 ± 6.7 years) with polypoidal lesions overlying choroidal nevi were included. The mean follow-up duration was 50.0 ± 27.9 months (range 12-108). All nevi were pigmented on color fundus photography, flat on ultrasonography with a mean basal diameter of 3.8 ± 0.4 mm. In all but one eye, optical coherence tomography showed a shallow irregular pigment epithelium detachment overlying the nevus. A total of 11/14 eyes (78.6%) had exudative activity, 9 eyes received intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections, and one eye required intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor combined with photodynamic therapy. Mean visual acuity was 20/32 at baseline and 20/50 at final visit.Conclusion:We present the largest known cohort of eyes with polypoidal lesions associated with choroidal nevi with up to 9 years follow-up. The exudative degree of the polypoidal lesion in this condition is variable and treatment decisions should be taken on an individual basis. We hypothesize that choroidal ischemia because of altered choroidal vasculature rather than Haller layer hyperpermeability plays a role in the formation of polypoidal lesions overlying nevi.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-143
Number of pages8
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2024


  • choroidal nevus
  • multimodal imaging
  • polypoidal lesions


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