Planning Just-in-Time versus planning Just-in-Case

Nurit Alfasi*, Juval Portugali

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


In this paper we introduce a distinction between two forms of planning: Just-in-Case planning versus Just-in-Time planning. The first refers to the traditional mode of planning as currently practiced in most urban and regional planning agencies, whereas the second, is what planning in a self-organizing system might be. The key notion behind this distinction is Just-in-Time-a method of production and management that marks the current transformation from 20th century Fordism to 21st century post-Fordism. In our paper we relate this distinction to the Israeli planning experience and suggest preliminary principles for a new, Just-in-Time, planning approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-39
Number of pages11
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2004


  • Beer-Sheeva
  • Housing
  • Israel
  • Tel-Aviv


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