Inferences from previous studies on the socio-psychological meaning of the transition from work to retirement are reviewed. Data are reported on the nature and scope of pre-retirement planning in a sample of 215 older male and female industrial workers. Particular reference is made to the extent to which planning of leisure activities is related to the worker's attitudes towards retirement, and several intervening variables affecting this relationship are examined. Finally, some theoretical and practical implications for pre-retirement counselling and training are discussed. It is suggested that pre-retirement counselling schemes may not be able to compensate for failure to develop life-long habits of using free time constructively, or for inadequate financial provision for retirement.