It has been suggested that Q fever infection in pregnancy is associated with various maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes, including intrauterine growth restriction, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal death, and oligohydramnios. We describe the cases of two pregnant women remote from term who presented with premature contractions and fever of unknown origin. During their hospitalizations, they had development of near-complete placental abruption. In both cases, immediate delivery ensued. Fever of unknown origin work-up revealed chronic Q fever infection, and polymerase chain reaction investigation of the placenta demonstrated chronic Q fever placentitis. Q fever placentitis may result in placental abruption remote from term. Therefore, in endemic areas, the diagnosis of Q fever requires appropriate surveillance and prenatal care.