Objective: To investigate the patterns of breast cancer-related and lactation-related 18F-FDG uptake in breasts of lactating patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) and without breast cancer. Methods: 18F-FDG-PET/CT datasets of 16 lactating patients with PABC and 16 non-breast cancer lactating patients (controls) were retrospectively evaluated. Uptake was assessed in the tumor and non-affected lactating tissue of the PABC group, and in healthy lactating breasts of the control group, using maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean, respectively), and breast-SUVmax/liver-SUVmean ratio. Statistical tests were used to evaluate differences and correlations between the groups. Results: Physiological uptake in non-breast cancer lactating patients’ breasts was characteristically high regardless of active malignancy status other than breast cancer (SUVmax = 5.0 ± 1.7, n = 32 breasts). Uptake correlated highly between the two breasts (r = 0.61, p = 0.01), but was not correlated with age or lactation duration (p = 0.24 and p = 0.61, respectively). Among PABC patients, the tumors demonstrated high 18F-FDG uptake (SUVmax = 7.8 ± 7.2, n = 16), which was 326–643% higher than the mostly low physiological FDG uptake observed in the non-affected lactating parenchyma of these patients (SUVmax = 2.1 ± 1.1). Overall, 18F-FDG uptake in lactating breasts of PABC patients was significantly decreased by 59% (p < 0.0001) compared with that of lactating controls without breast cancer. Conclusion: 18F-FDG uptake in lactating tissue of PABC patients is markedly lower compared with the characteristically high physiological uptake among lactating patients without breast cancer. Consequently, breast tumors visualized by 18F-FDG uptake in PET/CT were comfortably depicted on top of the background 18F-FDG uptake in lactating tissue of PABC patients. Key Points: • FDG uptake in the breast is characteristically high among lactating patients regardless of the presence of an active malignancy other than breast cancer. • FDG uptake in non-affected lactating breast tissue is significantly lower among PABC patients compared with that in lactating women who do not have breast cancer. • In pregnancy-associated breast cancer patients,18F-FDG uptake is markedly increased in the breast tumor compared with uptake in the non-affected lactating tissue, enabling its prompt visualization on PET/CT.
- Benign FDG uptake
- Breast cancer during lactation
- Normal FDG uptake
- Physiological avidity