Physical Activity and Long-Term Mortality Risk in Older Adults with and without Cardiovascular Disease: A Nationwide Cohort Study

Or Shaked, Gali Cohen, Abigail Goshen, Tal Shimony, Tamar Shohat, Yariv Gerber*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the association between physical activity (PA) levels and mortality among older adults, to determine whether it differs according to cardiovascular disease (CVD) status, and to assess the optimal weekly duration of PA associated with subsequent survival. Methods: Participants (n = 1,799) were drawn from a national survey conducted from 2005 to 2006, constituting Israeli adults aged ≥65 years. Sociodemographic, clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial data were collected via interview at study entry. Based on a detailed PA questionnaire and according to published guidelines, participants were classified as sufficiently active, insufficiently active, and inactive. CVD status was self-reported. Mortality data (last follow-up, December 2016) were obtained from the Israeli Ministry of Health. Using Cox models, inverse probability weighted hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality, based on propensity score, were estimated for PA categories. Results: Among the participants at baseline (mean age, 74.6 years), 559 (31.1%) were sufficiently active, 506 (28.1%) were insufficiently active, and 734 (40.8%) were inactive. During follow-up (mean, 9.0 years), 684 participants (38.0%) died. PA was inversely associated with mortality, with propensity score-adjusted HRs (95% confidence intervals) of 0.84 (0.71-1.01) in insufficiently and 0.73 (0.61-0.88) in sufficiently active participants (ptrend < 0.001). No PA-by-CVD interaction was detected on multiplicative scale (p = 0.36) or additive scale (p = 0.58). A monotonic survival benefit was observed until ∼150 min of PA per week, beyond which no further gain was apparent. Conclusions: In a nationwide cohort of older adults, nearly 70% did not meet the guideline for PA. PA engagement was inversely associated with long-term mortality risk, similarly in individuals with and without CVD. A maximum survival advantage was achieved at around 150 min of exercise per week.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)529-537
Number of pages9
JournalGerontology
Volume68
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2022

Funding

FundersFunder number
Stanley Steyer Institute for Cancer Epidemiology and Research
Chief Scientist Office
Ministry of Health, State of Israel
Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University

    Keywords

    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Epidemiology
    • MABAT
    • Mortality
    • Older adults
    • Physical activity

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