Photocopy machines and occupational antiphospholipid syndrome

Shlomo Bar-Sela, Yehuda Shoenfeld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Two patients who worked for several years in the operation and maintenance of photocopy machines developed an autoimmune disease. In both, early manifestations were thromboembolic phenomena associated with anticardiolipin antibodies. Joint and kidney involvement emerged later, with the appearance of other autoantibodies. These two patients were occupationally exposed to ultraviolet irradiation, ozone emission, and possibly some oxides of heavy metals. To our knowledge this is the first report of occupational autoimmune disease in photocopy machine workers, and the first description of antiphospholipid syndrome as an occupational disease. The possible cause-effect inter-relationship between their occupational exposure and autoimmune disease is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)52-54
Number of pages3
JournalIsrael Medical Association Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2008


  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Autoimmunity
  • Occupational disease
  • Photocopying
  • Ultraviolet


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