Precis: Intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, when used during telemedicine eye screening alongside nonmydriatic fundus photography, were shown to improve the likelihood of accurate glaucoma and glaucoma-related diagnoses at the follow-up eye examination. Purpose: To determine if IOP measurements, used as an adjunct to nonmydriatic fundus photography, are useful in glaucoma telemedicine screening. Materials and Methods: A total of 902 high-risk individuals were screened for glaucoma at 7 primary care practices and 4 Federally Qualified Health Centers using telemedicine. Screening at visit 1 included fundus photography, assessing family history of glaucoma, and IOP measurements using a hand-held rebound tonometer. Participants with suspicious nerve findings for glaucoma, IOP>21 mm Hg or other ocular pathologies were invited for a follow-up appointment with an ophthalmologist (visit 2). Results: Of the 902 individuals screened at visit 1, 19.6% (n=177/902) had elevated IOP (>21 mm Hg). Fifteen participants were found to have an IOP>30 mm Hg at visit 1, including 2 with an IOP of >40 mm Hg. Among all who attended visit 2 (n=347), 10.9% had glaucoma and 7.2% had ocular hypertension. For participants having both suspicious nerve findings and IOP>21 mm Hg compared with those with neither, the odds ratio (OR) of being diagnosed with glaucoma was 4.48 (95% CI, 1.50-13.93; P=0.007), whereas for participants with suspicious discs and IOP≤21 mm Hg the OR was 2.04 (95% CI, 0.83-5.53; P=0.15). Conclusions: In this telemedicine vision screening setting, having a higher IOP at the screening visit increased the likelihood of receiving a final diagnosis of glaucoma. Therefore, this study supports incorporating IOP measurements, using a portable tonometer, into vision screening programs in high-risk populations.
- eye screening
- intraocular pressure