Thin films of TiO2 were produced using filtered vacuum arc deposition. Arc currents were 275, 300, 325 A, and the oxygen pressure during deposition was 0.93 Pa. The substrates were glass microscope slides, at temperatures of 25 °C (RT), 200 °C, and 400 °C. Film thickness was in the range 100 to 250 nm, depending on the deposition conditions. Film structure and chemical composition were determined using XRD and XPS analyses, respectively. As-deposited films were amorphous, except to two samples that were found to be crystalline (deposited with 300 A, 325 A at 400 °C), and the crystalline phase was close to that of anatase. All of the films were partially crystallized by annealing in air at 450 °C for 1 h. The O:Ti atomic concentration ratio was in the range 1.6:1-2:1, independent of deposition conditions. The optical parameters, refractive index and the extinction coefficient of the films were determined using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. In addition, the optical transmission of the films were determined in the UV-VIS and IR regions. The average optical transmission in the VIS spectrum was 70-85%, affected by the interference in the film with 90% maxima and 60% minima. The refractive index at λ = 550 nm was in the range 2.4 to 2.7, depending on the deposition conditions and annealing. Using the semi-empirical model of Wemple and DiDomenico for the dielectric function below the interband absorption edge of ionic and covalent solids, the dispersion energy parameters of TiO2 (Eo, Ed) were calculated. The underlying structural order of the amorphous films was inferred by comparing the dispersion energy parameters of the amorphous films with those of crystalline TiO2. As expected, the refractive index of the amorphous films depended on the underlying phase of the film. The optical analyses indicated that the underlying phase of the amorphous films deposited on RT substrates was close to anatase, whereas the underlying phase of the amorphous films deposited on 400 °C substrates and annealed at 450 °C for 1 h consisted of both anatase and rutile. Thus, although the XRD analyses could not indicate the underlying phase of the amorphous films, it could be determined by the optical analyses.
- Optical characteristics