Pharmacological treatments for thyroid eye disease

Sara P. Modjtahedi, Bobeck S. Modjtahedi, Ahmad M. Mansury, Dinesh Selva, Raymond S. Douglas, Robert A. Goldberg, Igal Leibovitch*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Thyroid eye disease (TED), which affects the majority of patients with Grave's disease, is associated with significant ophthalmic morbidity. In patients with mild disease, supportive treatment with lubricating medication can be sufficient. However, in patients with severe TED and disfiguring proptosis or sight-threatening neuropathy, more aggressive medical or surgical interventions are necessary. Corticosteroids remain the preferred pharmacological treatment modality in the majority of patients with an active inflammatory component. Other immunosuppressive drugs in combination with corticosteroids may be helpful in patients with corticosteroid-resistant TED. Newer agents such as somatostatin analogues have not shown to be of significant clinical benefit; however, initial studies on the use of antioxidants and cytokine antagonists are encouraging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1685-1700
Number of pages16
Issue number13
StatePublished - 2006
Externally publishedYes


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