Pharmacokinetics of low-dose cidofovir in kidney transplant recipients with BK virus infection

J. D. Momper, Y. Zhao, R. Shapiro, K. S. Schonder, Y. Gao, P. S. Randhawa, R. Venkataramanan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: BK virus (BKV) infection in kidney transplant recipients is associated with progressive graft dysfunction and graft loss. Cidofovir, an antiviral agent with known nephrotoxicity, has been used in low doses to treat BKV infections. However, the systemic exposure and disposition of the low-dose cidofovir regimen are not known in kidney transplant recipients. Methods: We investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of low-dose cidofovir (0.24 - 0.62 mg/kg) both without and with oral probenecid in 9 transplant patients with persistent BK viremia without nephropathy in a crossover design. Results: The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of the study participants was 46.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 (range: 17-75 mL/min/1.73 m2). The contribution of active renal secretion to cidofovir total body clearance was assessed by evaluating the effect of probenecid on cidofovir PK. Maximum cidofovir plasma concentrations, which averaged approximately 1 μg/mL, were significantly below the 36 μg/mL 50% effective concentration in vitro for cidofovir against BKV. The plasma concentration of cidofovir declined with an overall disposition half-life of 5.1 ± 3.5 and 5.3 ± 2.9 h in the absence and in the presence of probenecid, respectively (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Cidofovir clearance and eGFR were linearly related irrespective of probenecid administration (r2 = 0.8 without probenecid; r2 = 0.7 with probenecid). This relationship allows for the prediction of systemic cidofovir exposure in individual patients and may be utilized to evaluate exposure-response relationships to optimize the cidofovir dosing regimen for BKV infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-41
Number of pages8
JournalTransplant Infectious Disease
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2013
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • BK virus
  • Cidofovir
  • Kidney transplantation
  • Pharmacokinetics

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