Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of PT302, a sustained-release Exenatide formulation, in a murine model of mild traumatic brain injury

Miaad Bader, Yazhou Li, Daniela Lecca, Vardit Rubovitch, David Tweedie, Elliot Glotfelty, Lital Rachmany, Hee Kyung Kim, Ho Il Choi, Barry J. Hoffer, Chaim G. Pick, Nigel H. Greig*, Dong Seok Kim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which no effective pharmacological treatment is available. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues such as Exenatide have previously demonstrated neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in cellular and animal models of TBI. However, chronic or repeated administration was needed for efficacy. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of PT302, a clinically available sustained-release Exenatide formulation (SR-Exenatide) were evaluated in a concussive mild (m)TBI mouse model. A single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of PT302 (0.6, 0.12, and 0.024 mg/kg) was administered and plasma Exenatide concentrations were time-dependently measured over 3 weeks. An initial rapid regulated release of Exenatide in plasma was followed by a secondary phase of sustained-release in a dose-dependent manner. Short- and longer-term (7 and 30 day) cognitive impairments (visual and spatial deficits) induced by weight drop mTBI were mitigated by a single post-injury treatment with Exenatide delivered by s.c. injection of PT302 in clinically translatable doses. Immunohistochemical evaluation of neuronal cell death and inflammatory markers, likewise, cross-validated the neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of SR-Exenatide in this mouse mTBI model. Exenatide central nervous system concentrations were 1.5% to 2.0% of concomitant plasma levels under steady-state conditions. These data demonstrate a positive beneficial action of PT302 in mTBI. This convenient single, sustained-release dosing regimen also has application for other neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and multiple sclerosis where prior preclinical studies, likewise, have demonstrated positive Exenatide actions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)439-453
Number of pages15
JournalNeurobiology of Disease
StatePublished - Apr 2019


  • Exenatide
  • Exendin-4
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1
  • Incretin mimetic
  • Mild traumatic brain injury
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neuroinflammation
  • PT302


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