Pharmacogenomics education in medical and pharmacy schools: Conclusions of a global survey

Nataša Karas Kuželički*, Irena Prodan Žitnik, David Gurwitz, Adrian Llerena, Ingolf Cascorbi, Sofia Siest, Maurizio Simmaco, Marc Ansari, Mario Pazzagli, Chiara DI Resta, Ivan Brandslund, Matthias Schwab, Pieter Vermeersch, Jeantine E. Lunshof, George Dedoussis, Christodoulos S. Flordellis, Uwe Fuhr, Julia C. Stingl, Ron H.N. Van Schaik, Vangelis G. ManolopoulosJanja Marc

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aim: The need for pharmacogenomic education is becoming more and more urgent. Our aim was to evaluate the progress in pharmacogenomics education since then, and to put forward further recommendations. Methods: A survey was sent to 248 schools of medicine, pharmacy, nursing and health professions around the world. Results: The majority of the study programs (87%) include pharmacogenomics education, which is generally taught as part of the pharmacology curriculum. On average, educators and teachers have selected appropriate and highly relevant pharmacogenomics biomarkers to include in their teaching programs. Conclusions: Based on the results, we can conclude that the state of pharmacogenomics education at the surveyed universities has improved substantially since 2005.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)643-657
Number of pages15
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2019


  • education
  • global survey
  • medicine
  • pharmacogenomics
  • pharmacy
  • recommendations


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