Background: Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a well-circumscribed lesion confined to the alveolar and gingival mucosa. PGCG is considered a reactive lesion caused by local irritation or trauma. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the incidence of PGCG in peri-implant lesions submitted for histologic examination, to establish its correlation with implant failure, and to discuss its pathogenesis. Methods: The study was conducted on 25 peri-implant biopsy specimens submitted for histological examination between 1999 and 2001. Sections (5 μm) of paraffin embedded tissues were cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results: From the 25 specimens, three (two males and one female, ranging in age from 31 to 69 years) were identified as peripheral giant cell granuloma. The posterior mandible was affected in two cases and the anterior maxilla in one. The clinical appearance was an exophytic mass with a bleeding surface. The time interval between implantation and lesion development was from several months to 6 years. Recurrence following curettage was found in all cases. The implants were stable; however, two were removed either because of bone loss around the implant or because of several recurrences. In all cases healing was uneventful. Conclusions: Peripheral giant cell granuloma can develop in association with dental implants. Clinically, the lesions are similar to the classical PGCG. In the present study, the precise incidence could not be concluded because of the small number of selected cases. Due to the aggressive nature of the lesion and the high recurrence rate, implants can fail unless the lesion is detected early and proper surgical removal is performed. Tissue removed from the peri-implant area should always be submitted for histologic examination for accurate diagnosis.
- Dental implants, failure
- Granuloma, giant cell/epidemiology
- Peri-implant diseases/diagnosis