Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, and Adenitis Syndrome – Is It Related to Ethnicity? An Israeli Multicenter Cohort Study

Gil Amarilyo, Liora Harel, Sabreen Abu Ahmad, Maryam Abu Rumi, Riva Brik, Nofar Hezkelo, Ronen Bar-Yoseph, Meir Mei-Zahav, Orly Ohana, Yoel Levinsky, Gabriel Chodick, Yonatan Butbul-Aviel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: To evaluate the ethnic distribution of Israeli patients with the syndrome of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA). Study design: The medical records of patients with PFAPA attending 2 pediatric tertiary medical centers in Israel from March 2014 to March 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with concomitant familial Mediterranean fever were excluded. Ethnicity was categorized as Mediterranean, non-Mediterranean, and multiethnic. Findings were compared with patients with asthma under treatment at the same medical centers during the same period. Results: The cohort included 303 patients with PFAPA and 475 with asthma. Among the patients with PFAPA, 178 (58.7%) were of Mediterranean descent (Sephardic Jews or Israeli Arabs), 96 (33.0%) were multiethnic, and 17 (5.8%) were of non-Mediterranean descent (all Ashkenazi Jews). Patients with PFAPA had a significantly higher likelihood of being of Mediterranean descent than the patients with asthma (58.7% vs 35.8%; P <.0001). The Mediterranean PFAPA subgroup had a significantly earlier disease onset than the non-Mediterranean subgroup (2.75 ± 1.7 vs 3.78 ± 1.9 years, P <.04) and were younger at disease diagnosis (4.77 ± 2.3 vs 6.27 ± 2.9 years, P <.04). Conclusions: PFAPA was significantly more common in patients of Mediterranean than non-Mediterranean descent. Further studies are needed to determine the genetic background of these findings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)268-273
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
Volume227
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2020

Keywords

  • Autoinflammatory syndromes

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