Perinatal Factors that Influence the Incidence of Subependymal and Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Low Birthweight Infants

Tzipora Dolfin, Martin B. Skidmore, Katherine W. Fong, Elizabeth M. Hoskins, John E. Milligan, Donald C. Moore, Andrew T. Shennan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A total of 95 preterm infants, delivered consecutively in a perinatal center, over a 9-month period, were studied serially with real-time ultrasound for detection of subependymal/intraventricular hemorrhage (SEH/IVH); all infants were < 32-week gestation and/or < 1500 gm birthweight. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to determine the influence of perinatal factors on the occurrence of SEH/IVH. The incidence of SEH/IVH was 34%; severe hemorrhage (Grade III-IV) occurred in only 13%. Gestational age was an important factor associated with SEH/IVH. Thus, the incidence in infants < 29-weeks gestation was 45%, whereas in infants > 29-weeks gestation age, it was 19% (p < 0.01). The overall incidence of SEH/IVH in the group which was < 29-weeks gestation and delivered by cesarean section was 53%, whereas in those infants delivered vaginally it was 47%. In infants whose gestational age was < 29-weeks, the incidence of hemorrhage was 47% if delivered vaginally and presenting as a vertex and 31% if delivered by cesarean section. In infants > 29-weeks gestation, the incidence of SEH/IVH was 42% in those delivered by the vaginal vertex route, 5% if presentation was vertex and delivered by cesarean section (p < 0.05). In infants > 29-weeks gestation, cesarean section in vertex presentation decreased the incidence of SEH/IVH when compared with vaginal vertex delivery. The incidence of SEH/IVH was higher in breech presentation (50%) than in vertex presentation (17%) even when all were delivered by cesarean section. There was no change in the incidence of SEH/IVH with the occurrence of labor, and the incidence was low in infants who were small for gestational age.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-113
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Perinatology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1984
Externally publishedYes


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