T cells are vital for adaptive immune responses that protect against pathogens and cancers. The T cell receptor (TCR)–CD3 complex comprises a diverse αβ TCR heterodimer in noncovalent association with three invariant CD3 dimers. The TCR is responsible for recognizing antigenic peptides bound to MHC molecules (pMHC), while the CD3 dimers relay activation signals to the T cell. However, the mechanisms by which TCR engagement by pMHC is transmitted to CD3 remain mysterious, although there is growing evidence that mechanosensing and allostery both play a role. Here, we carried out NMR analysis of a human autoimmune TCR (MS2-3C8) that recognizes a self-peptide from myelin basic protein presented by the MHC class II molecule HLA-DR4. We observed pMHC-induced NMR signal perturbations in MS2-3C8 that indicate long-range effects on TCR β chain conformation and dynamics. Our results demonstrate that, in addition to expected changes in the NMR resonances of pMHC-contacting residues, perturbations extend to the Vβ/Vα, Vβ/Cβ, and Cβ/Cα interfacial regions. Moreover, the pattern of long-range perturbations is similar to that detected previously in the β chains of two MHC class I-restricted TCRs, thereby revealing a common allosteric pathway among three unrelated TCRs. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations predict similar pMHC-induced effects. Taken together, our results demonstrate that pMHC binding induces long-range allosteric changes in the TCR β chain at conserved sites in both representative MHC class I- and class II-restricted TCRs, and that these sites may play a role in the transmission of signaling information.
- T cell receptor
- T cell triggering