Mitomycin C (MMC) has potent cytotoxicity but cumulative toxicity limits widespread use. In animals, pegylated liposomal mitomycin C lipid-based prodrug (PL-MLP) was well tolerated and more effective than free MMC. We evaluated PL-MLP in patients with advanced cancer. Twenty-seven patients were treated in escalating dose cohorts of 0.5-3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.15-1.03 mg/kg MMC) every 4 weeks for up to 12 cycles, unless disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Pharmacokinetics were assessed during cycles 1 and 3. Per protocol maximum tolerated dose was not reached at 3.5 mg/kg. However, prolonged thrombocytopenia developed after repeated doses of 3 mg/kg or cumulative doses of 10-12 mg/kg. Dose-related grade 3 or higher adverse events included fatigue, anemia, and decreased platelets. Cmax and AUC0-∞ increased linearly over the dose range 0.5-2.0 mg/kg, and greater than linearly from 2.5 to 3.5 mg/kg; there were no significant differences in clearance of MLP between cycles 1 and 3. Median t1/2 was 23 h among dose cohorts, with no trend by dose or cycle. One patient had a partial response. Stable disease was observed in 10 patients across all dose levels. PL-MLP has a long circulation time, was well tolerated, and can be administered to heavily pretreated patients at a single dose of 3.0 mg/kg and cumulative dose of 10-12 mg/kg before development of prolonged thrombocytopenia; this is nearly threefold the equivalent dose of MMC tolerated historically. This formulation may be active in a variety of tumor types and is better tolerated than free MMC.
- Clinical trial
- Mitomycin C