Pediatric Age-Related Distribution of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate and Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate in Urinary Tract Stones: Metabolic, Gender, and Ethnic Correlates

Paz Lotan*, Hen Hendel, Roi Babaoff, Ruth Tor, David Ben-Meir, Roy Morag, David Lifshitz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Previous studies of pediatric urolithiasis have suggested possible associations between the relative proportions of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones with age, gender, and ethnicity. This study aimed to investigate the composition and distribution of calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones according to these clinical factors and the metabolic correlates of the different subtypes in pediatric stone formers (PSFs). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the database of all first-time stone formers between 2014 and 2019. Infrared spectrometry was used to determine stone composition. Stones were categorized by their highest relative component and reported as a percentage of occurrences in the cohort as a whole and by patient gender, age (divided into three age groups: 1-5, 6-12, and 13-18 years), and ethnicity. Clinical and metabolic correlates were analyzed. Results: Of 2479 consecutive stones submitted to our chemical stone laboratory, 220 first-time PSFs were identified. COD stones were the predominant subtype in the youngest group, and COM stones in the oldest group (odds ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.86, p = 0.036). In the intermediate-age group (6-12 years), COM stones were more prevalent in Arab boys, and COD stones in girls of either ethnicity. COD stones were associated with hypercalciuria (p < 0.0001), and COM stones with hyperoxaluria (p = 0.0024). Hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia were the most prevalent abnormalities at ages 1 to 5 and 13 to 18 years, respectively. Conclusions: Analysis of CaOx stone subtypes and their metabolic correlates in stone formers has significant clinical relevance, specifically in children. In the present study, COD stones and hypercalciuria were more common in younger children, and COM stones and hypocitraturia in adolescents. These findings suggest unique complex interactions driving stone formations in children that may guide a more practical, limited, and cost-effective approach to metabolic evaluations, choice of treatment, and preventive measures, particularly in first-time CaOx PSFs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)928-934
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Endourology
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2023


  • age
  • calcium oxalate
  • ethnicity
  • gender
  • nephrolithiasis
  • pediatric stone


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