Patterns of Long COVID Symptoms: A Multi-Center Cross Sectional Study

LongCOV Research Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Long COVID has become a burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Research into the etiology and risk factors has been impeded by observing all diverse manifestations as part of a single entity. We aimed to determine patterns of symptoms in convalescing COVID-19 patients. Methods: Symptomatic patients were recruited from four countries. Data were collected regarding demographics, comorbidities, acute disease and persistent symptoms. Factor analysis was performed to elucidate symptom patterns. Associations of the patterns with patients’ characteristics, features of acute disease and effect on daily life were sought. Results: We included 1027 symptomatic post-COVID individuals in the analysis. The majority of participants were graded as having a non-severe acute COVID-19 (N = 763, 74.3%). We identified six patterns of symptoms: cognitive, pain-syndrome, pulmonary, cardiac, anosmia-dysgeusia and headache. The cognitive pattern was the major symptoms pattern, explaining 26.2% of the variance; the other patterns each explained 6.5–9.5% of the variance. The cognitive pattern was higher in patients who were outpatients during the acute disease. The pain-syndrome pattern was associated with acute disease severity, higher in women and increased with age. The pulmonary pattern was associated with prior lung disease and severe acute disease. Only two of the patterns (cognitive and cardiac) were associated with failure to return to pre-COVID occupational and physical activity status. Conclusion: Long COVID diverse symptoms can be grouped into six unique patterns. Using these patterns in future research may improve our understanding of pathophysiology and risk factors of persistent COVID, provide homogenous terminology for clinical research, and direct therapeutic interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number898
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • COVID-19
  • Long lasting symptoms
  • Post-COVID
  • SARS-CoV-2


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