Background: We assessed health-related quality of life (symptoms of therapy/patient functioning/global health status), in APHINITY (pertuzumab/placebo, trastuzumab, and chemotherapy as adjuvant HER2-positive early breast cancer therapy). Methods: Patients received 1 year/18 cycles of pertuzumab/placebo with trastuzumab and chemotherapy and completed EORTC QLQ-C30 and BR23 questionnaires until 36 months post-randomisation/disease recurrence. Changes ≥10 points from baseline were considered clinically meaningful. Results: 87–97% of patients completed questionnaires. In the pertuzumab versus placebo arms, mean decrease in physical function scores (baseline → end of taxane) was −10.7 (95% CI −11.4, −10.0) versus −10.6 (−11.4, −9.9), mean decrease in global health status was −11.2 (−12.2, −10.2) versus −10.2 (−11.1, −9.2), and mean increase in diarrhoea scores (baseline → end of taxane) was +22.3 (21.0, 23.6) versus +9.2 (8.2, 10.2). Diarrhoea scores remained elevated versus baseline in the pertuzumab arm throughout HER2-targeted treatment (week 25: +13.2; end of treatment: +12.2). Role functioning was maintained in both arms. Conclusions: Improved invasive disease-free survival achieved by adding pertuzumab to trastuzumab and chemotherapy did not adversely affect the ability to conduct activities of daily living versus trastuzumab and chemotherapy alone. Patient-reported diarrhoea worsened during taxane therapy in both arms, persisting during HER2-targeted treatment in the pertuzumab arm. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01358877.