Pathogenic strategies and immune mechanisms to necrotrophs: Differences and similarities to biotrophs and hemibiotrophs

Chao Jan Liao, Sara Hailemariam, Amir Sharon, Tesfaye Mengiste

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Pathogenesis in plant diseases is complex comprising diverse pathogen virulence and plant immune mechanisms. These pathogens cause damaging plant diseases by deploying specialized and generic virulence strategies that are countered by intricate resistance mechanisms. The significant challenges that necrotrophs pose to crop production are predicted to increase with climate change. Immunity to biotrophs and hemibiotrophs is dominated by intracellular receptors that recognize specific effectors and activate resistance. These mechanisms play only minor roles in resistance to necrotrophs. Pathogen- or host-derived conserved pattern molecules trigger immune responses that broadly contribute to plant immunity. However, certain pathogen or host-derived immune elicitors are enriched by the virulence activities of necrotrophs. Different plant hormones modulate systemic resistance and cell death that have differential impacts on resistance to pathogens of different lifestyles. Knowledge of mechanisms that contribute to resistance to necrotrophs has expanded. Besides toxins and cell wall degrading enzymes that dominate the pathogenesis of necrotrophs, other effectors with subtle contributions are being identified.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102291
JournalCurrent Opinion in Plant Biology
Volume69
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Keywords

  • Biotrophs
  • Hemibiotrophs
  • Necrotrophs
  • Pathogenesis
  • Plant immunity
  • Virulence

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