The paraoxonase (PON) family contains three genes (PON1/2/3) that are believed to be involved in the protection against oxidative stress. PON1 and PON3 are circulating in serum attached to high-density lipoprotein fraction (HDL), whereas PON2 is ubiquitously expressed. The intestine is the second major organ that synthesizes lipoproteins; therefore, we examined PON mRNA expression and protein levels in gastrointestinal biopsies from humans, from C57BL6 mice, and from Caco-2 cells, a colon carcinoma-derived cell line that exhibits properties of intestinal epithelium at differentiation. PON 1/2/3 mRNA and proteins were present in human biopsies with variable expression among different gastrointestinal segments. Only PON2 and PON3 were present in mice. All PON mRNA, proteins, and enzymatic activities were present in Caco-2 cells. Oxidation of CaCo-2 cells with ferrum ascorbate had no significant effect on PON mRNA expression, but it increased paraoxonase and lactonase activity, whereas statinase activity was decreased. We showed polarized secretion of PON1 (basolateral) and PON2 (apical) into Caco-2 culture medium, raising the possibility that intestine is capable of producing and releasing PON1 and PON3 to the circulation, whereas PON2 is released at the brush-border membrane to intestinal lumen where it may perform another yet unclear function.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Free Radical Biology and Medicine|
|State||Published - 1 Aug 2005|
- Gastrointestinal tract
- Oxidative stress