Social resilience and trust are two major components of the mitigation of the spread of contagious diseases. Although measures such as the imposition of national lockdowns and self-quarantines have been proven to be effective in reducing morbidity, their efficacy is dependent on public trust and compliance. The purpose of this study was to assess public attitudes toward the COVID-19 outbreak over the course of a year. A cohort study of the adult population in Israel was conducted during three waves of COVID-19 morbidity in that country, with February 2020 as the baseline, March 2020 for the first wave, August 2020 for the second, and January 2021 for the third. The results suggest that there is a relationship between risk perception and compliance with health regulations. Moreover, trust is a major component in public compliance. Fluctuations in risk perception and trust were found to affect compliance with regulations. The failure of decision makers to appropriately address the economic constraints imposed on the public during prolonged disasters, such as the COVID-19 outbreak, is likely to lead to a reduction in public trust in the government and to a decrease in societal resilience.