Investigators have long been interested in the natural phenomenon of fetal and placental cell trafficking into the maternal circulation. The scarcity of these circulating cells makes their detection and isolation technically challenging. However, as a DNA source of fetal origin not mixed with maternal DNA, they have the potential of considerable benefit over circulating cell-free DNA-based noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT). Endocervical trophoblasts, which are less rare but more challenging to recover are also being investigated as an approach for cell-based NIPT. We review published studies from around the world describing both forms of cell-based NIPT and highlight the different approaches’ advantages and drawbacks. We also offer guidance for developing a sound cell-based NIPT protocol.