This paper addresses an output feedback control problem for a class of networked control systems (NCSs) with a stochastic communication protocol. Under the scenario that only one sensor is allowed to obtain the communication access at each transmission instant, a stochastic communication protocol is first defined, where the communication access is modeled by a discrete-time Markov chain with partly unknown transition probabilities. Secondly, by use of a network-based output feedback control strategy and a time-delay division method, the closed-loop system is modeled as a stochastic system with multi-time-varying delays, where the inherent characteristic of the network delay is well considered to improve the control performance. Then, based on the above constructed stochastic model, two sufficient conditions are derived for ensuring the mean-square stability and stabilization of the system under consideration. Finally, two examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.