Outcome of T-cell–replete haploidentical stem cell transplantation improves with time in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

Arnon Nagler, Myriam Labopin, Yener Koc, Emanuele Angelucci, Johanna Tischer, Mutlu Arat, Pietro Pioltelli, Paolo Bernasconi, Patrizia Chiusolo, J. L. Diez-Martin, Jamie Sanz, Fabio Ciceri, Zinaida Peric, Sebastian Giebel, Jonathan Canaani, Mohamad Mohty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The use of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haplo-HCT) with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide prophylaxis is gaining traction in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). METHODS: The Acute Leukemia Working Party/European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry was used to evaluate the outcomes of adult patients with ALL who underwent haplo-HCT during 2011 through 2015 and compared them with the outcomes of those who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018. RESULTS: The analysis consisted of 195 patients, including 79 who underwent transplantation during 2011 through 2015 and 116 who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018. Overall, the 2-year leukemia-free survival and relapse incidence rates were 56.5% and 21%, respectively. The 100-day incidence of grade 2 through 4 acute graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) was 34.5%. The rates of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival (OS) were 22.5% and 64.7%, respectively. Patients who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018 experienced improved rates of leukemia-free survival (64.9% vs 47.3%; P =.019) and OS (75.5% vs 53.5%; P =.006). Patients who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018 developed more grade 2 through 4 acute GVHD (42% vs 26.4%; P =.047). The incidence of relapse, GVHD-free/relapse-free survival, grade 3 and 4 acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, and extensive chronic GVHD did not differ significantly between groups. In multivariate analysis, more recently transplanted patients had a significantly reduced risk of NRM (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.89; P =.022) and improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26-0.86; P =.014). A comparable analysis of patients who had acute myeloid leukemia during the same timeframes did not reveal any statistically significant differences in any outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of adult patients with ALL who receive posttransplant cyclophosphamide has improved over time, with an impressive 2-year OS of 75% and, most recently, an NRM rate of only 17%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2507-2514
Number of pages8
JournalCancer
Volume127
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Jul 2021

Keywords

  • acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  • graft-vs-host disease
  • haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation
  • leukemia-free survival
  • relapse

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