BACKGROUND: The use of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haplo-HCT) with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide prophylaxis is gaining traction in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). METHODS: The Acute Leukemia Working Party/European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry was used to evaluate the outcomes of adult patients with ALL who underwent haplo-HCT during 2011 through 2015 and compared them with the outcomes of those who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018. RESULTS: The analysis consisted of 195 patients, including 79 who underwent transplantation during 2011 through 2015 and 116 who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018. Overall, the 2-year leukemia-free survival and relapse incidence rates were 56.5% and 21%, respectively. The 100-day incidence of grade 2 through 4 acute graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) was 34.5%. The rates of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival (OS) were 22.5% and 64.7%, respectively. Patients who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018 experienced improved rates of leukemia-free survival (64.9% vs 47.3%; P =.019) and OS (75.5% vs 53.5%; P =.006). Patients who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018 developed more grade 2 through 4 acute GVHD (42% vs 26.4%; P =.047). The incidence of relapse, GVHD-free/relapse-free survival, grade 3 and 4 acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, and extensive chronic GVHD did not differ significantly between groups. In multivariate analysis, more recently transplanted patients had a significantly reduced risk of NRM (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.89; P =.022) and improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26-0.86; P =.014). A comparable analysis of patients who had acute myeloid leukemia during the same timeframes did not reveal any statistically significant differences in any outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of adult patients with ALL who receive posttransplant cyclophosphamide has improved over time, with an impressive 2-year OS of 75% and, most recently, an NRM rate of only 17%.
- acute lymphoblastic leukemia
- graft-vs-host disease
- haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation
- leukemia-free survival