It has been shown recently in experimental animals that regeneration of bone marrow after ablation is associated with enhanced osteogenic growth factor activity and a systemic increase in bone formation. To assess the possible occurrence of a similar phenomenon in humans, serum markers of bone formation, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase, were measured in marrow donors before the aspiration of large amounts of iliac marrow and 1 day to 5 weeks thereafter. Both osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase showed significant increases, with peak values 1–3 and 2–4 weeks postaspiration, respectively. The absolute maximal increase in osteocalcin was significantly higher in adolescent and child donors than in adults. When evaluated together with studies on systemic changes during fracture healing and marrow regeneration, these findings suggest that marrow aspiration in humans evokes a systemic osteogenic response.