Orchestrating parallel TCP connections: Cyclic and probabilistic polling policies

O. Czerniak*, E. Altman, U. Yechiali

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The standard Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is based on an additive rate increase in the absence of congestion, and on multiplicative decrease triggered by congestion signals. However, it does not scale well as the distances, or as the speed of the network, increase. Thus, we study some of the solutions that have been proposed to encounter this problem. These solutions include (i) splitting the transmission from a source to its destination into several parallel connections, and (ii) using Scalable TCP, which is a more aggressive version of TCP. The connection whose rate decreases when a signal arrives is chosen either at random or according to a round robin policy. Our analysis concentrates on a centrally controlled TCP system having N connections. We consider both Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD) and Multiplicative Increase Multiplicative Decrease (MIMD) control mechanisms. The LaplaceStieltjes Transforms (LST) of the transmission rate of each connection at a polling instant, as well as at an arbitrary moment, are derived. Explicit results are obtained for the mean transmission rate and (in contrast to most polling models) for its second moment. For the AIMD procedure under the cyclic visit policy we show that, for both dynamic (Hamiltonian-type) and static visit orders in each cycle, the connections should be visited following a simple index rule in order to achieve maximum throughput. For the probabilistic visit policy we obtain the set of optimal probabilities that maximizes mean throughput. The analysis of the probabilistic MIMD models uses transformations yielding a system's law of motion equivalent to that of an M/G/1 queue with batch service. The MIMD control mechanism with probabilistic strategy is further analyzed for the case where the transmission rate is bounded above.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)150-163
Number of pages14
JournalPerformance Evaluation
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Mar 2012


  • AIMD
  • Bounded transmission rate
  • Cyclic polling
  • Hamiltonian tours
  • Limited buffer
  • M/G/1 batch service
  • MIMD
  • Probabilistic polling
  • TCP


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