Oral and fecal polio vaccine excretion following bOPV vaccination among Israeli infants

Odelia Chorin*, Michal Perry Markovich, Eva Avramovich, Sarit Rahmani, Danit Sofer, Merav Weil, Tamy Shohat, Ehud Chorin, Diana Tasher, Eli Somekh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Inactivated polio virus (IPV) vaccinations are a mainstay of immunization schedules in developed countries, while oral polio vaccine (OPV) is administered in developing countries and is the main vaccine in outbreaks. Due to circulating wild poliovirus (WPV1) detection in Israel (2013), oral bivalent polio vaccination (bOPV) was administered to IPV primed children and incorporated into the vaccination regimen. Objectives: We aimed to determine the extent and timeframe of fecal and salivary polio vaccine virus (Sabin strains) shedding following bOPV vaccination among IPV primed children. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from a convenience sample of infants and toddlers attending 11 Israeli daycare centers. Salivary samples were collected from infants and toddlers following bOPV vaccination. Results: 398 fecal samples were collected from 251 children (ages: 6–32 months), 168 received bOPV vaccination 4–55 days prior to sample collection. Fecal excretion continued among 80 %, 50 %, and 20 %, 2, 3, and 7 weeks following vaccination. There were no significant differences in the rate and duration of positive samples among children immunized with 3 or 4 IPV doses. Boys were 2.3-fold more likely to excrete the virus (p = 0.006). Salivary shedding of Sabin strains occurred in 1/47 (2 %) and 1/49 (2 %) samples 4, and 6 days following vaccination respectively. Conclusions: Fecal detection of Sabin strains among IPV-primed children continues for 7 weeks; additional doses of IPV do not augment intestinal immunity; limited salivary shedding occurs for up to a week. This data can enhance understanding of intestinal immunity achieved by different vaccination schedules and guide recommendations for contact precautions of children following bOPV vaccination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4144-4150
Number of pages7
JournalVaccine
Volume41
Issue number28
DOIs
StatePublished - 23 Jun 2023

Keywords

  • Bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV)
  • Fecal shedding
  • Immunization
  • Polio outbreak
  • Salivary excretion
  • Surveillance

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