Optimization of experimental ESP results

H. Kreitler, S. Kreitler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


A comparative analysis of four extrasensory perception (ESP) experiments showed that ESP enhanced neither supraliminal nor subliminal inputs. Nor did it strengthen a subject's dominant response tendencies. It proved to be most manifest when the contents of the ESP message differed from that of concomitant external and internal stimuli. Hence, it was concluded that external and internal stimuli constitute the noise background against which the ESP signal has to be detected. In order to strengthen the detectability of ESP signals, and thus increase the possibility of successful ESP experimentation in addition to the already traditional reduction of external stimulation in ESP experiments, there should also be experimental control of response bias and guessing habits, and especially the selection of messages which differ considerably in their contents from the contents of whatever external and internal stimuli may be occurring at the same time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)383-392
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Parapsychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1974
Externally publishedYes


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