Optic disc pit maculopathy: When and how to treat? A review of the pathogenesis and treatment options

Elad Moisseiev*, Joseph Moisseiev, Anat Loewenstein

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations

Abstract

Optic disc pit (ODP) is a rare congenital anomaly of the optic disc, which can be complicated by a maculopathy associated with progressive visual loss. Optic disc pits are usually unilateral and sporadic in occurrence, and the development of maculopathy is unpredictable with no known triggers. Optic disc pit maculopathy (ODP-M) is characterized by intraretinal and subretinal fluid at the macula, causing visual deterioration. The source of this fluid is still unclear, and several competing theories have suggested it may be vitreous fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, leakage from blood vessels at the base of the pit or leakage from the choroid. The mechanism of pathogenesis of ODP-M has not been fully elucidated, but vitreous liquefaction and traction and pressure gradients within the eye have been implicated to be involved. There are no clear guidelines on the management of patients with ODP-M, and numerous techniques have been described, including laser photocoagulation, intravitreal gas injection, macular buckling and pars plana vitrectomy with many different modifications. The majority of reports describe small series, and as there are no comparative studies there is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment for ODP-M. This review discusses the literature on the possible sources of fluid and mechanisms of pathogenesis in ODP-M, as well as the wide array of treatment modalities and their results. Based on these, a set of recommended key concepts for the timing and choice of treatment for these challenging are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13
JournalInternational Journal of Retina and Vitreous
Volume1
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 24 Jul 2015

Keywords

  • Optic disc pit maculopathy
  • Review
  • Treatment
  • Vitrectomy

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