The advantages of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) are probably related to the avoidance of the three major physiological insults associated with open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair: laparotomy, aortic cross-clamping and ischemia reperfusion injury. Continuing aneurysm expansion indicates a failure to exclude the AAA from the circulation. We describe our experience with open surgery of post-EVAR sac expansion. A consecutive series of 68 EVAR patients was followed up. Endovascular and minimally invasive procedures were the initial treatment option. Failure of these attempts to curtail AAA sac expansion or type 2 large endoleaks (EL) resulted in opening of the aneurysm sac. The procedure includes positioning of a deflated occlusion balloon proximal to the stent graft (SG). Laparotomy with opening of the eneurysm sac was then performed. The thrombus was removed and backbleeding vessels oversewn. The aneurysm sac was then plicated over the SG. Four patients (5.9%) were diagnosed as having either persistent large type 2 EL or sac enlargement. In all patients the procedure was accomplished successfully. One patient died from acute myocardial infarction perioperatively. Three patients recovered uneventfully and follow-up computed tomography confirmed the absence of endoleak and a disappearance of the AAA. We believe that whenever EVAR fails to exclude the aneurysm from the circulation, open exploration without graft replacement should be considered.
- Endovascular aneurysm repair
- Persistent type 2 endoleak